Dec 11, 2010

Cancun summit reaches an agreement on climate change

UN talks in Cancun have reached a deal to curb climate change, including a fund to help developing countries.

Nations endorsed compromise texts drawn up by the Mexican hosts, despite objections from Bolivia.

The draft documents say deeper cuts in carbon emissions are needed, but do not establish a mechanism for achieving the pledges countries have made.

Some countries' resistance to the Kyoto Protocol had been a stumbling block during the final week of negotiations.

However, diplomats were able to find a compromise.

Delegates cheered speeches from governments that had caused the most friction during negotiations - Japan, China, even the US - as one by one they endorsed the draft.

BBC environment correspondent Richard Black said the meeting did not achieve the comprehensive, all-encompassing deal that many activists and governments want.

But he said it was being "touted as a platform on which that comprehensive agreement can be built".

Mexico's President Felipe Calderon said the summit had allowed leaders to "glimpse new horizons" where countries had the "shared task to keep the planet healthy and keep it safe from [humans]".



The UK Prime Minister David Cameron said: "Now the world must deliver on its promises. There is more hard work to be done ahead of the climate change conference in South Africa next year."

The Green Climate Fund is intended to raise and disburse $100bn (£64bn) a year by 2020 to protect poor nations against climate impacts and assist them with low-carbon development.

A new Adaptation Committee will support countries as they establish climate protection plans.

And parameters for funding developing countries to reduce deforestation are outlined.

But the deal is a lot less than the comprehensive agreement that many countries wanted at last year's Copenhagen summit and continue to seek. It leaves open the question of whether any of its measures, including emission cuts, will be legally binding.

"What we have now is a text that, while not perfect, is certainly a good basis for moving forward," said chief US negotiator Todd Stern.

His Chinese counterpart, Xie Zhenhua, sounded a similar note and added: "The negotiations in the future will continue to be difficult."

Bolivia found faults both with elements of the deal and with the way the texts were constructed through private conversations between small groups of countries.



Delegation chief Pablo Solon said that what concerned him most was that commitments would not be made under the Kyoto Protocol.

"We're talking about a [combined] reduction in emissions of 13-16%, and what this means is an increase of more than 4C," he said.

"Responsibly, we cannot go along with this - this would mean we went along with a situation that my president has termed 'ecocide and genocide'," Mr Solon said.

But Claire Parker, senior climate policy adviser for the global conservation group IUCN, said: "We have moved away from the post-Copenhagen paralysis.

"Developing countries can now see new money on the table which they can draw on to adapt to the impacts they're already facing and reduce emissions."

Tara Rao, senior policy adviser with environmental group WWF commented: "There's enough in it that we can work towards next year's meeting in South Africa to get a legally binding agreement there."

The final day of the two-week summit had dawned with low expectations of a deal.

But ministers conducted intensive behind-the-scenes diplomacy to formulate texts that all parties could live with.

Russia and Japan have secured wording that leaves them a possible route to escape extension of the Kyoto Protocol's legally binding emission cuts, while strongly implying that the protocol has an effective future - a key demand of developing countries.

The Green Climate Fund will initially use the World Bank as a trustee - as the US, EU and Japan had demanded - while giving oversight to a new body balanced between developed and developing countries.

Developing countries will have their emission-curbing measures subjected to international verification only when they are funded by Western money - a formulation that seemed to satisfy both China, which had concerns on such verification procedures, and the US, which had demanded them.

Courtesy: BBC

View 2010 Nobel Peace Prize awarding ceremony

2010 Nobel Peace Prize awarding ceremony held in Oslo, Norway on December 10, 2010 in absence of Liu Xiaobo.



View 2010 Nobel Peace Prize awarding ceremony

Nobel Peace Prize 2010 awarded in absence of Xiaobo

China could face economic and social crises if it fails to embrace full civil rights, with consequences for the whole world, the Nobel Committee said yesterday in prepared remarks for a ceremony awarding the Peace Prize to Chinese dissident Liu Xiaobo.

The awarding of the prize to Liu, serving an 11-year sentence for subversion, has infuriated Beijing as the rising Asian power becomes more assertive on the world stage. It has attempted to use diplomatic pressure to discourage countries from attending the ceremony in Oslo.

Norwegian Nobel Committee Chairman Thorbjoern Jagland said Liu wanted to dedicate his Nobel to "the lost souls" of 1989 when troops crushed pro-democracy protests in Tiananmen Square. Witnesses and rights groups said hundreds were killed.

"We can to a certain degree say that China, with its 1.3 billion people, is carrying mankind's fate on its shoulders," Jagland said in the prepared speech.

"If the country proves capable of developing a social market economy with full civil rights, this will have a huge favourable impact on the world. If not, there is a danger of social and economic crisis arising... with consequences for all."

An empty chair at the ceremony symbolised Liu's imprisonment. It was the first occasion that no representative of a detained laureate had been allowed to the ceremony since 1935, when pacifist Carl von Ossietzky was jailed by Adolf Hitler's Nazi regime.

Jagland called on China to release Liu and said Beijing's reaction had showed the award was "necessary and appropriate".

In Liu's absence, Norwegian actress Liv Ullmann was due to read out the laureate's speech from his court trial a year ago.

"I have no enemies and no hatred. None of the police who monitored, arrested, and interrogated me, none of the prosecutors who indicted me, and none of the judges who judged me are my enemies," Liu told a Chinese court on Dec. 23, 2009.

"I, filled with optimism, look forward to the advent of a future free China. For there is no force that can put an end to the human quest for freedom, and China will in the end become a nation ruled by law, where human rights reign supreme."

Nobel Peace Prize 2010 ceremony in Oslo, Norway

Nobel laureate is absent as he is imprisoned by the Chinese Court.




This happens after 75 years in the world in the history of Nobel Prize that the Nobel Prize winner is barred to receive the prize by the government of the country.

Nobel Peace Prize 2010 awarding ceremony

The Nobel Peace Prize 2010 awarding ceremony. No single person of China could show an encouragement to receive the award on behalf of Mr. Liu Xiaobo of China at the awarding ceremony held at Oslo in Norway on December 10, 2010.

 


It may be mentioned here that Mr Xiaobo is now under imprisonment in China Jail. Nobel laureate Liu Xiaobo, democracy spokesman in China, is serving an 11-year prison sentence in China on subversion charges brought after he co-authored a bold call for sweeping changes to Beijing's one-party communist political system.

Dec 10, 2010

First Cyber World War begins to save Wikileaks

Thousands of hackers have stepped up their first ever Cyber World War to draw support for WikiLeaks and to stop repression on Julian Paul Assange, the founder of the Wikileaks on Thursday(December 9, 2010).

The Swedish government's website was forced offline after a group calling itself "Anonymous" vowed to intensify its "war of data" against Mastercard, Visa and other groups which have blocked funding to WikiLeaks.

Organisers of the group said thousands of volunteers had joined the defence of WikiLeaks and its founder Julian Assange, who is in jail in London on an extradition request from Sweden over sex crimes allegations.

"This is a war of data, we are trying to keep the Internet open and free for everyone, just the way the Internet has been and always was," said a spokesman for Anonymous, a man with a British accent calling himself "Coldblood".

Anonymous is a loose-knit group of hacktivists politically motivated hackers. It is also helping to create hundreds of mirror sites for WikiLeaks, after its US domain name provider withdrew its services.

Anonymous said that it has hit several targets, including the website of the prosecutors who are acting in a legal case against WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange.

Meanwhile, the UN's human rights chief expressed concern about pressure on private companies to stop providing financial or Internet services for WikiLeaks.

Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin voiced support for WikiLeaks' boss Julian Assange, describing his detention in Britain as "undemocratic".

Brazil's President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva expressed "solidarity" with Assange, blasting the Australian activist's arrest as a blow against "freedom of expression."

In an online chat with AFP, organisers said they had started with only around 50 users taking part in the distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks that bombard websites to take them offline, but now had around 4,000.

"We recruit through the Internet, that means, everywhere: imageboards, forums, Facebook, Twitter... you name it, we're using it," they said.

Twitter and Facebook later removed accounts for the Anonymous group's "Operation Payback" campaign on the grounds that it was targeting individuals.

As well as Mastercard, Visa and PayPal, hackers have also shut the website of the Swiss Post Office bank for severing ties to WikiLeaks and the website of the Swedish prosecutor's office for pursuing Assange.

They also threatened to knock Amazon.com offline but their initial cyber attack appeared to have failed.

The latest apparent victim was the Swedish government, according to a report in the country's top-selling daily newspaper.

Aftonbladet said the official government website, http://www.regeringen.se/, was offline for a few hours overnight on Thursday(December 9, 2010), publishing a screen shot which showed the server could not be reached.

The paper also reported that WikiLeaks supporters had created a website bearing Swedish Justice Minister Beatrice Ask's name which then redirected users to WikiLeaks own site.

Members of Anonymous also took aim on Wednesday at the websites of US conservative standard bearer Sarah Palin and US Senator Joe Lieberman, who called for US companies to withdraw technical support for WikiLeaks.

Palin has described Assange as "an anti-American operative with blood on his hands" and called for him to be hunted down like al-Qaeda chief Osama bin Laden.

Paul Mutton at the security firm Netcraft, who is monitoring the attacks, said Visa is considered a more difficult target and the attack on it required a much larger number of hacktivists, 2,000 compared with 400 for Mastercard.

Earlier the BBC was contacted by a payment firm linked to Mastercard that said its customers had "a complete loss of service".

In particular, it said that an authentication service for online payments known as Mastercard's SecureCode had been disrupted.

Other readers have also said that they have had problems with online payments. The scale of the problems is still unclear.

Mastercard acknowledged there had been "a service disruption" involving its SecureCode system, but it added: "Our core processing capabilities have not been compromised and cardholder account data has not been placed at risk.”

Other firms that have been hit in the recent spate of attacks include the Swiss bank, PostFinance, which closed the account of WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange.

Before the Mastercard attack, Coldblood, told the BBC "Websites that are bowing down to government pressure have become targets," he said.

"As an organisation we have always taken a strong stance on censorship and freedom of expression on the Internet and come out against those who seek to destroy it by any means."

"We feel that WikiLeaks has become more than just about leaking of documents, it has become a war ground, the people vs the government," he said.

Coldblood admitted that such attacks "may hurt people trying to get to these sites" but said it was "the only effective way to tell these companies that us, the people, are displeased".

Empty chair to represent L. Xiaobo at Nobel Peace Prize ceremony

Time is knocking. Stage is set for awarding Nobel Peace Prize 2010. But the central of attraction, the Chief Guest will not be present. He is in jail. He is hearing the sounds and shows of the ceremony. However, the ambassadors, royalty and VIPs to take their seats in Oslo's modernest City Hall on Friday for the Nobel Peace Prize ceremony, there will be one chair left empty for this year's winner Mr. Liu Xiaobo.

Chinese authorities have placed Liu's supporters, including his wife Liu Xia, under house arrest to prevent anyone from picking up his prize.

Nobel laureate Liu Xiaobo, democracy spokesman in China, is serving an 11-year prison sentence in China on subversion charges brought after he co-authored a bold call for sweeping changes to Beijing's one-party communist political system.

On Thursday, Chinese police surrounded Liu's house in Beijing. Officers guarded the entrance to the residential compound and checked the identities of all who entered. About a dozen journalists stood outside while officers patrolled inside the compound in central Beijing.

China was infuriated when the prestigious USD 1.4 million prize was awarded to the 54-year-old literary critic, describing it as an attack on its political and legal system.

Beijing has also pressured foreign diplomats to stay away from Friday's ceremony. China and 18 other countries have declined to attend, including Russia, Pakistan, Iran, Venezuela and Cuba.

At least 45 of 65 embassies in Oslo have accepted invitations.

Nobel committee secretary Geir Lundestad said Liu will be represented ‘by an empty chair ... the strongest possible argument’ for awarding it to him.

It will be the first time the peace prize will not be handed out since 1936, when Adolf Hitler prevented German pacifist Carl von Ossietzky from accepting the award.

The prize can be collected only by the laureate or close family members.

Cold War dissidents Andrei Sakharov of the Soviet Union and Lech Walesa of Poland were able to have their wives collect the prizes for them.

Myanmar democracy activist Aung San Suu Kyi's award was accepted by her 18-year-old son in 1991.

Indian BSF kills Bangladeshi National today

Indian Border Security Force (BSF) shot dead a Bangladeshi National at Masudpur frontier under Shibganj Upazila of Chapainawabganj District of the country on Friday, 10th December 2010, sources confirmed.

The deceased was identified as Kalu Mia, son of Abdur Razzak of Thuthapara-Sahapara village of the upazila. Local people said that Mr Kalu was a businessman.

Commanding Officer of 39 Rifles Battalion Abu Bakar Abu said the BSF troops from Shubhopur camp in West Bengal open fired on a group of Bangladeshi cattle traders while they were returning home at about 3:00am, killing Kalu Mia on the spot.

Local people however managed to took the body into Bangladesh territory defying BSF's menace.

Received on information, Shibganj police recovered the body in the morning and sent it to Adhunik Sadar Hospital in Chapainawabganj morgue for autopsy.

The BDR sent a protest letter to their counterpart protesting the killing. 

Killing of Bangladeshi nationals is rampant at the India-Bangladesh borders which is like routine work of Indian BSF. Human Rights Watch (HRW), an US based international human rights group revealed earlier in their report that BSF killed more than 900 Bangladesi at the India-Bangladesh border in the last decade.  There was not a single case where punishment was awarded to the responsible BSF members, the report observed.

The HRW report also criticized the Bangladesh government for its weakness to save the life of its nationals and urged the government to take immediate measure to save its national in the Indian border of the country.   

Latest Wikileaks whistle

WikiLeaks has published some crucial issues form secret US diplomatic cables. The latest internationally significant releases from the Wikileaks are categorized here:

1. About Chinese economic expansion in Africa: The United States thinks China is a "pernicious economic competitor with no morals" whose booming investments in Africa are propping up unsavoury regimes, according to a February 23 cable by the US consul-general in Lagos.

The US assistant secretary of state for African affairs, Johnnie Carson, was quoting as giving the frank assessment in a meeting with oil executives in Nigeria.

"China is not in Africa for altruistic reasons," he said. "China is in Africa for China primarily."

2. To free Nobel Laureate Liu Xiaobo: US officials pushed China to free dissident Liu Xiaobo, winner of the 2010 Nobel Peace Prize, in the weeks after he was first detained.

In late 2008, only two weeks after Liu was first held, then ambassador to China Clark Randt "urged the Chinese government to release him and stop harassing peaceful dissidents", according to a confidential memo.

Current US ambassador Jon Huntsman took up the cause in 2009, writing to Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi after Liu was imprisoned on subversion charges for co-authoring Charter 08, a manifesto for democratic reform in communist China.

3. Possible arrest warrants against CIA agents: Documents showed that Washington put intense pressure on Berlin to not enforce arrest warrants against CIA agents involved in the 2003 abduction of a German citizen mistakenly believed to be a terrorist.

4. Wrong detainee: Khaled el-Masri, an unemployed car salesman of Lebanese origin, was captured in late December 2003 as he entered Macedonia on vacation. Local authorities mistook him for an al-Qaeda operative with a similar name and turned him over to the CIA.

Masri said he was held and tortured in a secret US prison in Afghanistan before US agents realised their mistake and released him, five months later.

5. Possible arrest warrants against CIA agents: In a February 2007 cable, the US deputy chief of mission in Berlin, John Koenig, emphasised to German Deputy National Security Adviser Rolf Nikel "that issuance of international arrest warrants would have a negative impact on our bilateral relationship".

6.About Nigeria's leadership: A cable revealed that Nigeria's leadership was in total confusion over who was in charge early this year with then-president Umaru Yar'Adua thought to be in a "semi-comatose state".

The cable, dated February 26, 2010, reported on a meeting between then-US ambassador Robin Renee Sanders and Goodluck Jonathan, who was Nigeria's acting president at the time. Jonathan became president in May after Yar'Adua's death.

"Jonathan told the ambassador 'everyone's confused' about who is in charge of Nigeria," according to the document obtained by WikiLeaks and published by British newspaper The Guardian.

"There has been an increase in the level of uncertainty in the internal political situation following ailing President Yar'Adua's return, which was shrouded in secrecy, during the early hours February 24."

7. Australian Sports Minister: Senior Australian politicians insisted the country's sports minister was not a "spy" for Washington after cables reportedly revealed he was a "protected" source for the United States.

American economy sees strong position

American economy experiences strong position in its key indicators exposed recently. Among this, one of the major indicator is amount of applications for unemployment benefits in the United States of America which dropped last week to the second-lowest level this year, fresh evidence that companies are cutting fewer jobs.

First-time claims for jobless aid fell by 17,000 to a seasonally-adjusted 421,000 in the week ending Dec. 4, the Labor Department of USA said Thursday.

The four-week average of claims, a less-volatile measure, dropped for the fifth straight week to 427,500. That's the lowest since August 2008, just before the financial crisis intensified with the collapse of Lehman Brothers.

Separately, the Commerce Department said businesses boosted wholesale inventories for the tenth straight month in October and sales rose by the largest amount in seven months. Strong demand from businesses restocking depleted store shelves has helped the economy grow after the recession and the latest data suggests that hasn't tapered off.

Still, Thursday's economic data was not all positive. Mortgage rates rose for the fourth straight week. The average rate on a 30-year fixed loan increased to 4.61 percent and the average rate on a 15-year fixed loan hit 3.96 percent, Freddie Mac said. The surge could slow refinancings and further hamper the housing market.

Unemployment claims have fallen steadily in the past two months. Applications dropped to 410,000 two weeks ago — the lowest level in more than two years — and they have been below 450,000 for the past five weeks. That is raising hopes that companies will soon accelerate hiring. The job market is also expected to benefit if Congress passes legislation that would extend tax cuts for two years and unemployment benefits through the end of next year.

Still, unemployment claims have only been below 425,000 for two of the last three weeks. Economists say they need to be below that level for an extended period to have any real impact lowering the nation's unemployment rate.

In November the economy added just 39,000 net jobs and the unemployment rate rose to 9.8 percent. Many economists say that was only a temporary setback and that the downward trend in unemployment claims, along with other strong economic data, suggest December will be a stronger month for hiring.

The latest report on jobless claims adds "weight to our view that the November employment report did not provide a very accurate reading on the strength of job creation," economists at RDQ Economics wrote in a note to clients. "We expect an upward revision to November payrolls and a more solid reading on job creation in December than we saw in November."

The weekly applications for unemployment benefits are considered a real-time snapshot of the job market. They reflect the level of layoffs but can also indicate whether companies are willing to add workers.

First-time applications peaked during the recession at 651,000 in March 2009, and then steadily declined to about 470,000 by the beginning of this year. Claims were stuck near that level for most of this year before moving down again in October and November.

The number of people continuing to claim unemployment, meanwhile, dropped sharply to just below 4.1 million.

But that doesn't include another 4.5 million people who are receiving extended benefits under an emergency unemployment insurance program set up during the recession. That total dropped by about 400,000 in the week ending Nov. 20, the latest data available.

The extended benefits expired on Nov. 30. But they are likely to be renewed for another 13 months under the agreement reached between President Barack Obama and congressional Republicans.


That would lower the unemployment rate at a faster pace next year, pushing it "well below" 9 percent by the end of 2011, according to Mark Zandi, chief economist at Moody's Analytics.

But unemployment will still be elevated for several years. Economists at Goldman Sachs project the jobless rate will be 8.5 percent by the end of 2012.

The proposed deal on taxes and unemployment benefits is also having an impact on mortgage rates. The average rate on a 30-year fixed loan is well above the 4.17 percent rate hit a month ago — the lowest level on records dating back to 1971.

Rates are rising after plummeting for seven months. Investors are selling Treasury bonds in anticipation that the tax deal will aid the economy, and that the stock market will become a more attractive place to put their money. That is raising the yield on Treasurys and mortgage rates tend to track those yields.

Dec 9, 2010

Over 900 Bangladeshis killed by BSF in last decade, says Human Rights Watch report

Over 900 Bangladeshi nationals have been killed by the Indian Border Security Force (BSF) over the last decade, Human Rights Watch said in a report released on December 9, 2010. Human Rights Watch found no evidence in any death it documented that the person was engaged in any activity that would justify such an extreme response by BSF, the report added.

It is revealed that in several cases they found that Bangladeshi nationals were injured or killed due to indiscriminate firing from across the border. For instance, 13-year-old Abdur Rakib was shot as he was grazing his buffaloes near the border when a soldier opened fire. Another boy, Mohammad Omar Faruq, age 15, was injured.

The USA based international human rights wathdog also observed that many of the Bangladeshi people were killed by BSF when they crossed into Indian territory for cattle rustling or other smuggling activities.

"Residents complain that intimidation, verbal abuse, and beatings are common, with border guards, particularly the BSF, treating everyone as suspects." Ganguly said. "The border force, with a peacetime mission of preventing illegal activity, is acting like it is in a war zone, torturing and killing local residents."

India and Bangladesh should take immediate steps to end the killing of hundreds of Bangladeshi citizens at the West Bengal-Bangladesh border by India's Border Security Force (BSF), Human Rights Watch said. The Indian government should prosecute BSF soldiers responsible for serious human rights abuses, Human Rights Watch added.
The 81-page report, "‘Trigger Happy': Excessive Use of Force by Indian Troops at the Bangladesh Border," documents the situation on the border region, where both Bangladesh and India have deployed border guards to prevent infiltration, trafficking, and smuggling.

Human Rights Watch found numerous cases of indiscriminate use of force, arbitrary detention, torture, and killings by the security force, without adequate investigation or punishment. The report is based on over 100 interviews with victims, witnesses, human rights defenders, journalists, law- enforcement officials, and Border Security Force and Bangladesh Rifles' (BDR) members.

"The border force seems to be out of control, with orders to shoot any suspect," said Meenakshi Ganguly, South Asia director at Human Rights Watch. "The border operations ignore the most basic rule of law, the presumption of innocence."

Since both Indians and Bangladeshis have fallen prey to this excessive use of force, both governments need to open a joint independent investigation to turn the situation around, Human Rights Watch said.

Many people routinely move back and forth across this frontier to visit relatives, buy supplies, and look for jobs as well as for both petty and serious crime. The border forces are charged with intercepting illegal activities, especially narcotics smuggling, human trafficking for sex work, and transporting fake currency and explosives. They are also charged with restraining militants who are plotting violent attacks.

In many of the cases investigated by Human Rights Watch, the victims were cattle rustlers -farmers or laborers hoping to supplement their meager livelihood as couriers in the lucrative but illegal cattle trade that is rampant at the West Bengal border. Alauddin Biswas, a border resident, described the killing of his nephew who was suspected of cattle rustling by border guards in March 2010.
I went to see the body. It was lying 5 or 6 kilometers away from our house. There were police and politicians. We all saw that the BSF had shot him while he was lying on his back. They had shot him in the forehead and the bullet had pierced through and was lying a few inches inside the ground. If he was running away, he would have been shot in the back. They just killed him...

The Indian government is constructing a fence close to the border to contain the infiltration of economic migrants from Bangladesh, as well as militant groups responsible for attacks on Indian citizens. The resulting limitations on freedom of movement of those wanting to access their own land closer to the border has led to hardship for border residents.

The border force justifies the killings by claiming that suspects were evading arrest, or that it had to fire in self-defense, Human Rights Watch said. But suspicion of a crime or evasion of arrest cannot alone justify the use of lethal force.
The United Nations Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials calls upon officials to apply, as far as possible, nonviolent means before resorting to the use of force and firearms. Officials are required to exercise restraint and "act in proportion to the seriousness of the offense." 

Hundreds of complaints of mistreatment by the border forces have been filed, but no member of the force has been prosecuted. Human Rights Watch found that local police forces rarely register complaints against border security and sometimes encourage the victims to drop their cases, telling them that nothing will come of it. On one occasion, the police informed a victim that the border force had committed no crime, since it was there "to beat the people."

The Bangladesh government should vigorously protect the right to life of its citizens, even those who may be involved in illegal trade, and should call upon the Indian government to exercise restraint.

"Human Rights Watch has repeatedly called upon the Indian government to prosecute those responsible for human rights violations instead of letting its security forces get away with murder," Ganguly said. "The BSF insists that there are internal investigations, but why then is it so unwilling to reveal whether anyone has been punished for these killings."

Dec 8, 2010

Gold for girls beautification and satisfaction

Am I married? Woo! I have no gold though I am married. It can not be thought! Gold is the matter of emotion to the girls and women of the world. It is specially the matter of high satisfaction to the females of the Indian subcontinent. 

Gold is the media to expose total fairness of a girl. Gold increases beauty and image of women.Gold is the means of security to the women of middle class families.
Gold is the way to show the up to date fashion. Fashion makes fascination for gold among the girls. They see aesthetic beauty in side of them though the touches of golds.
They address their dearest some one telling "my gold". It is some time very much precious to them even more than their life. They think all things may go out of my hand but my gold.

Gold fashion now a days is becoming more attractive and passionateness among the females even in this age of technology and careerists. From very top and busy personalities to model and house wives are the fond of gold.
 
However, men are also like gold ornaments in their eyes in the body of women. Gold makes dazzling sights in the bodies of women. Menes' eyes becomes impressive and cold seeing the beauty of girls in touch of golds.

Hundreds of fashionable women and girls, actors and models display themselves in the latest model and fashion on how the gold ornaments may be clothed. Gold costumes are becoming favorite.
Gold Jewelry has traditional value in Indian culture and most favorite among the females because of its brilliant shine and untainted purity. It’s the valuable and precious property piece which can easily be molded in any design and give gorgeous look to females and sticking one to males. 

Though, pure gold is soft that practically is not much durable and suitable for daily wearing purpose. Therefore, other metals or elements like Nickel, Palladium, Copper and Silver are used to mix with pure gold which results in solid and more durable gold. 

Pure gold is expensive than the mixed one or solid gold. Different metals change the color of the gold like, Copper produces cherry or pink shade, Palladium or Nickel creates white gold and Silver generates greenish shine.
Gold platted and coated jewelry comfortably suites to every pocket, as low-cost mixing metals considerably trim down the final cost of the jewelry. Gold platted jewelry have a very thin coating of gold which may easily get washout if wear on daily basis, thicker the layer more the durability of the coating. 
Therefore, Gold filled and platted jewelry is ideal option to wear occasionally and Solid gold for the daily wearing purpose. Solid gold is the blend of metal and pure gold which may sometime causes allergy and other skin problem to sensitive people. This can be solved out by choosing the right kind and quality gold. However, it’s hard to find but little knowledge of ‘karat system’ help you out up to a great extend.

Karat (K) is the unit which unfolds the total percentage/amount of pure gold in the item. Higher the karat figures indicate the higher content of the gold. 24K gold is considered as the pure gold and any marking below 10K is measured as the solid gold. 

One may find 18K, 14K, 12K and 10K gold which mean that item contains 18, 14, 12 and 10 parts of gold 6, 10, 12 and 14 parts of one and two mixed metals to make them 75%, 58.5%, 50% and 41.7% gold respectively. Whereas, in European system 18K, 14K and 10K gold marked as 750 for 75%, 585 for 58.5% and 417 for 41.7% respectively. 

To ensure from the purity part you should check the karat marking along with hallmark or trademark which defines its manufacturer.

Whatever form or Karat gold you choose it will grant you beautiful and royal look. Jewelry box without any gold piece is not complete in itself, just like a bride having no gold jewelry. Number of options in gold jewelry designs and styles are available.

               

Dec 7, 2010

Korean Crises: Timeline 2010

26 March: South Korean warship, Cheonan, sinks, killing 46 sailors.

20 May: Panel says a North Korean torpedo sank the ship; Pyongyang denies involvement.

July-September: South Korea and US hold military exercises; US places more sanctions on Pyongyang.

29 September: North holds rare party congress seen as part of father-to-son succession move.

29 October: Troops from North and South Korea exchange fire across the land border.

12 November: North Korea shows US scientist new - undeclared - uranium enrichment facility.

23 November: North shells island of Yeonpyeong, killing at least four South Koreans.

27 Nov-1 Dec: South Korea and US hold joint military drills.

6-12 Dec: South Korea stages live-fire military exercises

Google eBooks launched, authors can get compensation

Google has agreed to set up a Books Rights Registry through which authors could register their works and get compensation but no ruling from the US court looking at the case has yet been handed out.

Google eBooks, formerly known as Google Editions, has been launched in the US on Monday (December 6, 2010). Google also hopes to write itself a substantial chapter in the digital books story with the launch of its own store.

It will allow users to download three million e-books to a range of devices.

It will put it head-to -head with Amazon, which links its Kindle device to its own store, and Apple with its iBookstore.

The launch of the service has been delayed, due to legal and technical wrangles.

But Google is hopeful that its "device agnostic" store will rewrite the current generation of digital books.

"It benefits authors because they will be able to be more visible and more accessible than with the physical constraints of a book store," said Santiago de la Mora, director of books at Google.

"It will also be good for publishers who will be able to promote backlist titles," he added.

James McQuivey, an analyst with research firm Forrester, predicts Google could become an important player in the market.

"It is sitting on information that no-one else has. It knows when you are searching for authors and what book titles and that is its biggest strength," he said.

"It may not lure people away from the Kindle but there are tens of millions of people who read but don't own a Kindle," he added.

According to Forrester, 10.3 million e-readers were sold in the US during 2010, not including the iPad. It predicts that by the end of 2010, the e-book market will be worth $966m (£615m).

Google does not have an unblemished record when it comes to digital books.

Its work to scan millions of books has courted huge controversy from critics who were concerned that it could become the sole curator of a huge online library.

It has been fighting a two-year legal battle with authors and publishers in the US.

Google's ability to offer users access to classic literature could boost its eBook project, thinks Mr McQuivey.

"If you can read Les Miserables for free using Google's system it is a way to lure people in and whet their appetite for e-reading," he said.

He expects the e-reading market to nearly double in size in 2011.Google's eBook service is expected to launch in Europe in 2011.

Assange's bank account frozen in Switzerland

The Swiss post office bank, PostFinance, has frozen the accounts of Wikileaks founder Julian Paul Assange.

The whistle-blowing website says the freeze includes a defence fund and personal assets worth 31,000 euros.

Wikileaks has published hundreds of secret US diplomatic cables, angering the US government and triggering moves by several companies including PayPal and Amazon to end their services.

Meanwhile, a warrant for Mr Assange's arrest has reached the UK authorities.

Sources have told the BBC that the European Arrest Warrant for Mr Assange arrived on Monday afternoon.

Swedish prosecutors want to question Mr Assange in connection with allegations of rape, which he denies.

He is believed to be in hiding somewhere in south-east England. Once the police have located him, he would be expected to appear at a magistrate's court within 24 hours, pending extradition to Sweden, says the BBC's security correspondent Frank Gardner.

The move by Switzerland's PostFinance to freeze the Wikileaks accounts is the latest setback to hit the whistle-blowing website since it began publishing the US cables last week.

On its website, PostFinance said Mr Assange had "provided false information regarding his place of residence during the account opening process.

"(Mr) Assange entered Geneva as his domicile. Upon inspection, this information was found to be incorrect.

"(Mr) Assange cannot provide proof of residence in Switzerland and thus does not meet the criteria for a customer relationship with PostFinance. For this reason, PostFinance is entitled to close his account."

For its part, Wikileaks says it and Mr Assange have lost 100,000 euros in assets in a week.

"Late last week, the internet payment giant PayPal, froze 60,000 euros of donations to the German charity the Wau Holland Foundation, which were targeted to promote the sharing of knowledge via Wikileaks," Wikileaks said in a statement.

On Monday, Wikileaks released an extensive list of facilities around the world that, according to the latest leaked cables, the US describes as vital to its national security.

The list includes pipelines, communication and transport hubs.

Several UK sites are listed, including cable locations, satellite sites and BAE Systems plants.

This is probably the most controversial document yet from the Wikileaks organisation, says BBC diplomatic correspondent Jonathan Marcus.

Former UK foreign secretary Malcolm Rifkind accused WikiLeaks of being "generally irresponsible, bordering on criminal".

Courtesy: BBC.

Dec 6, 2010

New form of Bacteria Halomonas Titanicae discovered

The Halomonas titanicae bacterium was found in "rusticles", the porous and delicate icicle-like structures that form on rusting iron.

Samples of rusticles from Titanic were gathered in 1991 by the Mir 2 robotic submersible.

Various bacteria and fungi live within the delicate structures - first identified on the Titanic - actually feeding off of the rusting metal.

The find is described in the journal International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology.

Researchers from Dalhousie University and the Ontario Science Centre in Canada and the University of Seville in Spain isolated the H. titanicae bacteria from those samples.

They sequenced the microbes' DNA before discovering that they constituted a new member of the salt-loving Halomonas genus.

The bacteria are of particular interest because they may shed light on the mechanism by which rusticles form, and thus on the general "recycling" that such microbes carry out on submerged metal structures.

That, the authors point out, has relevance also to the protection of offshore oil and gas pipelines, and the safe disposal at sea of ships and oil rigs.

Dec 5, 2010

Iran can produce nuclear fuel using uranium, claimed by Tehran

Iran claimed Sunday it could now use domestically mined uranium to produce nuclear fuel, giving the country complete control over a process the West suspects is geared toward producing weapons.

Tehran made the claim a day before a new round of nuclear talks with world powers that want to rein in Iran's uranium enrichment — a process that can be used either to make fuel for nuclear energy or nuclear weapons.

The nuclear chief said Iran had for the first time delivered domestically mined raw uranium to a processing facility — allowing it to bypass U.N. sanctions prohibiting import of the material. Four rounds of U.N. sanctions have targeted Iran's uranium enrichment program.

Nuclear chief Ali Akbar Salehi said the uranium ore concentrate, known as yellowcake, was produced at the Gachin uranium mine in southern Iran and delivered to the uranium conversion facility in the central city of Isfahan for reprocessing.

Salehi, head of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, said the delivery was evidence that last week's mysterious bombings targeting two Iranian nuclear scientists would not slow the country's progress. One of the scientists died and another was wounded.

"Today, we witnessed the shipment of the first domestically produced yellowcake ... from Gachin mine to the Isfahan nuclear facility," said Salehi, whose comments were broadcast live on state television.

The four sets of U.N. Security Council sanctions against Iran forbid the supply of nuclear materials to Tehran.

In 2009, Western nations claimed Iran was running out of raw uranium for its nuclear program. Tehran denied it but in recent years sought to extract uranium from its own deposits.

Iran acquired a considerable stock of yellowcake from South Africa in the 1970s under the former U.S.-backed shah's original nuclear program, as well as unspecified quantities of yellowcake obtained from China long before the U.N. sanctions.

Salehi, who is also the country's vice president, said the step meant Iran was now self-sufficient over the entire nuclear fuel cycle — from extracting uranium ore to enriching it and producing nuclear fuel.

He added that the message to those meeting with Iran in Geneva on Monday and Tuesday was that they cannot stop Iran's nuclear work.

Salehi said the activity will be carried out under the supervision of the U.N. nuclear watchdog — the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

"No matter how much effort they put into their sanctions ... our nuclear activities will proceed and they will witness greater achievements in the future," he said in an interview with state-run Press TV after the announcement.

Five hardline student groups followed up with a call on President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad to stop cooperating with the U.N. nuclear watchdog agency for what they claimed is "spying" on Iran. They called it the "International Atomic Espionage Agency."

Iran's nuclear chief said a bigger uranium mine at Saghand, in central Iran, will be inaugurated "in the not too distant future."

Iran's Intelligence Minister Heidar Moslehi on Saturday accused the IAEA of sending spies in the guise of inspectors to collect information about Iran's nuclear activities.

The Gachin uranium mill near Bandar Abbas processes ore extracted from a nearby mine into yellowcake. The processing is part of the early stages before actual enrichment of uranium.

Yellowcake is then taken to the Isfahan facility to be processed into uranium hexaflouride, which later can be turned into a gas used as feedstock for enriching uranium.

Uranium enriched to low grades is used for fuel in nuclear reactors, but further enrichment makes it suitable for atomic bombs.

The United States and some of its allies accuse Iran of using its civil nuclear program as a cover to develop nuclear weapons. Iran has denied the accusation, saying its nuclear program is geared solely toward generating electricity and producing medical isotope to treat patients.

Salehi did not provide details on how much yellowcake had been transferred to Isfahan, but said the shipments, for now, would be carried out "continuously." State TV showed a large, covered truck carrying the yellowcake.

In October, Salehi said nuclear experts have discovered larger uranium reserves than previously thought at Gachin and were stepping up exploration of the ore.

Saghand's known reserves are estimated at more than 1.7 million tons of medium quality ore. The mine, about 300 miles (480 kilometers) south of Tehran, has a production capacity of 132,000 tons of uranium ore per year. It consists of an open pit with minimal reserves and a deep mine nearby. A lack of funds has reportedly delayed ore extraction at the mine.

The Iranian government has also provided funds to its nuclear agency to begin ore extraction at Saghand, the mine with the largest uranium reserves in the country. Saghand has not yet become operational.

Iran announced discoveries of new uranium deposits in 2006 at three sites in the central areas of Khoshoomi, Charchooleh and Narigan.